Poznavanje dejavnikov tveganja za nastanek raka med slovenskimi najstniki
Knowledge of cancer risk factors among Slovenian teenagers

  • Ana Košir Osnovna šola Karla Destovnika-Kajuha
  • Enej Hadžić Osnovna šola Karla Destovnika-Kajuha
  • Jasna But Hadžić Institute of Oncology Ljubljana
Keywords: risk factors, cancer, smoking, alcohol, nutrition, elementary school, physical activity, UV radiation

Abstract

UVOD: Glede na trenutne trende lahko pričakujemo, da naj bi eden od dveh fantov in ena od treh deklet današnjih najstnikov do 75. leta starosti zboleli za rakom. Po podatkih državnega programa za obvladovanje raka, bi lahko kar 40 % rakov preprečili z zdravim načinom življenja in izogibanjem dejavnikom tveganja, zato bi morali najstniki dobro poznati dejavnike tveganja, da bi v prihodnosti zmanjšali pojavnost te bolezni.
NAMEN: Glavni namen naše raziskave je bil ugotoviti, kako dobro najstniki poznajo dejavnike tveganja nastanka raka ter preveriti, ali obstaja razlika v znanju med spoloma ter med različno starimi najstniki.
METODE DELA: V raziskavo smo vključili 185 najstnikov, starih med dvanajst in petnajst let (54 % fantov, 46 % deklic), ki so izpolnili mednarodni vprašalnik o poznavanju dejavnikov tveganja nastanka raka. Vprašalnike smo nato prenesli v elektronsko obliko s pomočjo spletnega orodja 1KA, ki nam je omogočil pripravo in tudi delno obdelavo rezultatov.
REZULTATI: 58 % učencev skrbi, da bodo zboleli za rakom, pri tem pa med spoloma obstaja bistvena razlika, saj to skrb izraža 74 % deklet in le 44% fantov. Med najpomembnejšimi dejavniki tveganja slovenski najstniki na prvem mestu navajajo kajenje (55 %), na drugem alkohol (24 %), na tretjem sevanje (14 %) in na četrtem nezdravo prehrano (14 %). Med učenci se jih 83 % strinja, da nekatera živila povečajo možnost nastanka raka. Pri vprašanju o številu potrebnih dnevnih porcij sadja in zelenjave je povprečen odgovor 3,5 porcij od priporočenih 5. Večina učencev (69 %) meni, da je rdeče meso dejavnik tveganja za nastanek raka, samo polovica pa ve, da je treba dnevno zaužiti manj kot 5 g soli. Da je vzdrževanje zdrave telesne mase eden najpomembnejših načinov preprečitve raka se strinja 81 % učencev, 85 % pa jih meni, da je telesna dejavnost povezana s preprečevanjem nastanka raka. 87% učencev dobro pozna nevarnost sončenja, prav tako pa dobro opredeljujejo alkohol kot dejavnik tveganja, čeprav jih 74 % ni prepričanih ali imajo vse alkoholne pijače enak učinek.
ZAKLJUČKI: V raziskavi smo ugotovili, da najstniki dobro poznajo dejavnike tveganja za nastanek raka, saj so med najpogostejšimi desetimi dejavniki pravilno opredelili 6,7 dejavnikov, kar je več kot npr. v Veliki Britaniji, kjer so najstniki pravilno opredelili samo 4,4 dejavnikov. Pokazali smo, da med spoloma obstaja razlika v poznavanju dejavnikov pri oceni nevarnosti kajenja in vpliva telesne mase. Izkazalo se je, da med različno starimi otroci ni bistvenih razlik v poznavanju dejavnikov tveganja nastanka raka.


Abstract (Eng)

INTRODUCTION: Based on current trends, one can expect that one in two teenage boys and one in three teenage girls will be diagnosed with cancer at the age of 75. According to the National Cancer Management Program, as many as 40% of cancers could be prevented through healthy lifestyles and avoidance of risk factors, and teens should be well aware of risk factors in order to reduce the incidence of this dangerous and common disease in the future.
PURPOSE: The main aim of our study was to determine how well teenagers are aware of the cancer risk factors and to check for sex and age related differences in knowledge.
METHODS: We included 185 teenagers between the ages of 12 and 15 (54% boys, 46% girls) who completed an international questionnaire on cancer risk factors. We then transmitted the questionnaires electronically using the online tool 1KA, which allowed us to prepare and partially process the results.
RESULTS: 58% of teenagers worry about being diagnosed with cancer, with a significant gender gap, with 74% of girls and only 44% of boys expressing this concern. Smoking (55%), alcohol (24%), radiation (14%) and unhealthy nutrition (14%) are among the most important cancer risk factors for Slovenian teenagers. Among teenagers, 83% agree that certain foods increase the chance of cancer. When asked about the number of daily servings of fruits and vegetables required for the cancer prevention, the average answer was 3.5 servings out of the recommended 5. Most students (69%) believe that red meat is a risk factor for cancer, and only half know that we should consume less 5 g of salt daily. 81% of schoolchildren agree that maintaining a healthy body weight is one of the most important ways to prevent cancer, and 85% believe that physical activity is related to preventing cancer. 87% are well aware of the dangers of UV radiation (sunbathing) and are also good at identifying alcohol as a risk factor, although 74% are not convinced that all alcoholic beverages have the same effect.
CONCLUSIONS: The study found that Slovenian teenagers are well aware of the risk factors for cancer, as they have correctly identified 6.7 factors among the top ten, which is more than e.g. in the UK, where teenagers correctly identified only 4.4 factors. We have shown that there is a difference between the sexes in the knowledge of the factors in the assessment of the risk of smoking and the influence of healthy body mass. It turns out that there are no significant differences in the knowledge of cancer risk factors among differently aged children.

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Published
2020-05-12
How to Cite
Košir, A., Hadžić, E., & But Hadžić, J. (2020). Knowledge of cancer risk factors among Slovenian teenagers. Onkologija : A Medical-Scientific Journal, 24(1), 26-31. https://doi.org/10.25670/oi2020-004on
Section
Original Scientific Article
Page
26-31